The Conceptualization of Religion
Religion is a social genus that has existed in many cultures. Different cultures define religion in different ways. Many cultures have believed in the afterlife, cosmological orders, and disembodied spirits. There have also been people who lived without explicit metaphysics, cosmological orders, or afterlife. Some cultures, however, have not practiced religion in a traditional sense.
Functional definition of religion
The “functional” definition of religion emphasizes the importance of community unity and social cohesion. It rejects the idea that religion is something innately personal and has no measurable external value. In contrast, the “substantive” definition of religion requires belief in an extraordinary reality. In this view, religion is a system of beliefs and practices that unite people.
There are many differences between the functional and substantive definitions of religion. A functional definition is more general and less specific than a substantive definition, but they both emphasize how religion affects human beings. A functional definition is based on the concepts, tasks, and functions that religion performs in human life.
Conceptualization of religion in the twentieth century
One of the most controversial issues facing the modern world is the conceptualization of religion. In the twentieth century, the term “religion” has come to mean two things. First, it refers to a person’s spirit and mind. This conception is still prevalent, especially in the sociology of religion.
This category of religion is socially constructed and should be examined carefully. As such, if one wants to understand the nature and function of religion, then one should examine the processes that generate, legitimize, and negotiate meaning systems across cultures.
Function of religion in cross-cultural studies
Religion is a complex institution with diverse functions and consequences for individuals and societies. At one extreme, it can provide comfort and solace in the face of uncertainty, and at the other extreme, it can be frightening and destabilizing. Most researchers, however, subscribe to Durkheim’s view that religion acts as a “glue” in human societies. For example, he observed that religious communes in the 19th century outlasted those of secular origin.
Religion is part of culture, which is a system of learned behavior, values, and beliefs. It can be localized, culturally transmitted, or purely communal. In addition, religions can be fundamentalist or traditional. In any case, principles of intercultural communication and conflict resolution can be helpful in navigating religious diversity.
Criticism of the concept of religion in postcolonial and decolonial scholarship
Postcolonial and decolonial scholarship has been instrumental in clearing up misconceptions about religion. Critics have noted that the concept of “religion” is problematic and often tied to racism and the construction of the Other. During the heyday of colonialism, the academic study of religion was developed as a discipline that was treated as sui generis and isolated from other aspects of culture.
Postcolonial scholarship has also challenged the dominant cultural representation of subaltern peoples as passive vessels and recipients. It argues that the subaltern subject, not the colonizer, develops his or her own postcolonial identity.